Innovative Multiple-Choice in formative tests

My recent blogpost, a discussion in a linkedin group on spychometrics and the just announced conference on formative assessment make me write this small post.

  • Answer Untill Correct (AUC) – test-taker selects answer, then receives feedback if correct or not, if not –> test-takers selects next answer etc.:
  • Discrete Option Multiple Choice (DOMC)  – test-taker is only shown one answering option of an mc question at a time, student must select correct answer when it is displayed:
  • Certainty Based Marking (CBM) –  test-taker must provide certainty level of being correct for each option in an mc question:
  • NEW! Confidence  Based Marking – seems an interesting variant of Certainty Based Marking (but uses the old term of Gardner-Medwin for it unfortunately) – first, the test-takers only sees the stimulus, then rates confidence of being able to answer correctly, then is presented all options and then selects the correct option:
  • Number right elimination testing (NRET) – a variant of elimination testing (ET) – mark incorrect answers, mark correct answer and provide certainty level for it:
  • Liberal (Free-Choice) Multiple-Choice Tests – test-taker may select any option of an mc question but correct option is awarded 3 points, any incorrect selected option is awarded -1 point. Main idea: System discourages guessing:, try it at

So many ideas!


2 thoughts on “Innovative Multiple-Choice in formative tests

  1. You may be interested to see our new platform (just launched!) – – which supports “answer until correct” tests for formative assessment. For summative assessment it offers “subset selection” tests (equivalent to elimination tests), in addition to traditional tests with or without negative marking.

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